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At the other side of this culture of capitalism, vis-a-vis the production end, stands the consumption end: film audiences.
Or to put it in Althusserian ideological terms, even high cultural subjects must necessarily participate with or interpellate the mass cultural or ideological contexts in which they exist.
In a chapter entitled "That Shakespearean Mob," from his book, Shakespeare Among the Moderns, Richard Halpern discusses mass culture as it relates to the com-modification of Shakespeare.
In the chapter Halpern, drawing from the insights of Jurgen Habermas, defines a "mass-cultural public" as a public that "passively consumes rather than critically debates its literature and art" (1997, 71).
Halpern points out the distinction that Habermas makes between a "mass-cultural public" and a "culture-debating public." (4) However, Halpern refines his definition of a mass cultural public in talking about "cynical reason." According to Halpern, a more accurate understanding of mass culture consists not in setting a mass-cultural public and a culture-debating public in opposition, but in realizing that the two overlap.
(5)My use of the term, "mass culture" most closely follows Halpern's revised definition.
More specifically, Olivier's fame presented him with a unique opportunity to render a lasting impression of the way in which Richard III should be adapted on a smaller scale and how Richard should be played on a larger scale, an opportunity on which he capitalized.